Man’s dream to fly like birds dates back to unimaginable times in Greek mythology and represents it in a storie which tells how King Mimos confined in the labyrinth of Crete island Icarus and his father Daedalus
In an attempt to escape, Daedalus built wings for himself and his son. Used wax to adhered to the shoulders of Icarus and then on his, initiating the flight that would take them to freedom. The father had warned his young son not to fly too high or too low.
Despite the warnings of his father, Icarus fascinated by the wonder of flight it rose at air disobeying Daedalus who could not stop it. In addition, Icarus felt master of the world and wanted to go higher still getting too close to the sun, where the heat melted the wax holding his wings, so he lost them. The unfortunate and reckless young ended falling in to the sea
There well as the many types of stories and legends in different cultures of our world, Incas, Egyptians, Mayans among others, reaching refer to characters of various kinds with ability to fly like witches, who had the ability to fly a broom. Whatever the reason, the seed of desire to fly was planted in the minds of the restless human being.
In the thirteenth century English monk Roger Bacon concluded that air could support a machine, in the same way that water does a boat made. Matter that Da Vinci try to show.
Leonardo Da Vinci made designs, according to experts, inspired the creation of the propeller, helicopters, gliders, parachutes and paragliders. In addition, he conceived the ornithopter, a device with wings like a bird that could move mechanically. For Da Vinci who analyzed the anatomy of the wings of birds and study the muscular strength of man thought that this could allow the flight of his designs, which proved false years later. It was the first to apply scientific techniques for the first time to develop their inventions
The experiments that failed were those who tried to imitate the movement of the wings of birds with wings moved by paddles or arms of men; and the greatest successes and progress was made with the study of gliders. In general, the contributions of the time were focused on aerodynamics and flight stability.
The first ascent of a manned apparatus occurred on October 15, 1783. It was a balloon designed on the basis of physical principles described by the Montgolfier brothers. These principles claimed that an object could always rise it weighed less than the atmospheric air that surround it. Known that the hot air is lighter than cold air, a balloon was built with a cloth wrap and the air inside is heated. Success was immediate, many followers who imitated and improved the invention appeared.
However, keep the air at a hot enough temperature from the outside air posed a problem: on cooling, forced heated again by some method on board the balloon, which meant make a fire in a confined space and carry enough firewood or other combustible material. The solution was to use balloons that harbored inside gases lighter than air, and therefore they did not need heating. One of the gases hydrogen was interesting , it was ease to get it, but his point was security against: hydrogen explodes on contact with the atmosphere, resulting therefore difficult to handle and very dangerous; It was not useful in balloons with fabric surface and easy to break. The practical use of the balloon was scarce. It was used for some time as a means of fun and observation, especially in times of war. In this case, it is tied to ground to prevent displace; this type of balloon was called captive.
Aeronautical engineer George Caley in the nineteenth century made kites and gliders tests carrying humans, and designed as a device powered by a propeller helicopter on the horizontal axis. He was regarded in England as the father of aviation.
It’s amazing how the Air Force has been developing in the last decades if you wanted to be transported in time and go back to the nineteenth century could meet leading European inventors and see how bold was the desire to fly like the French Clément Ader (1841-1926) and German Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896).
Ader invention an aircraft powered by a steam engine 2-cylinder, leading him to fly in their first experiences at 20 cm and a distance of 50 meters, because his ship had no tail and no side control, then try to create a ship-shaped bat. What is noteworthy in this French is that he was the first to be called “airplane" to such devices.
Which is actually considered the first man who flew and landed safely is German Otto Lilienthal, who from young tube a series of accidents trying to fly, have in one of these adventures legs started to jump from a mill wings attached to the arms. This brilliant engineer wrote a book in 1889 called “the flight of birds a basis for the art of flying" making public their research in this field.
Even I do not tube success in their first flights as the way to get initial propulsion was throwing a hill and control of the aircraft depended on the balance of the driver could reach 25 meters high.
Plan came to perform 2,500 flights and died in one of his attempts
Finally, a December 17, 1903 in North Carolina two brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright made history by achieving rise for 59 seconds at about 260 meters high, in a heavier-than-air powered aircraft engine. Thanks to this feat are universally considered the fathers of aviation.
They were big fans of Otto Lilienthal, at the age of 30 years built a biplane kite with a device by ropes from the ground alabeaba wings. The result was satisfactory. In 1890 they wrote the American franc Chanute engineer for advice, and he responded by initiating a fruitful relationship considerably.
In September 1900 they flew at Kitty Hawk (NC) its first manned glider. At first the prototype was tested with a weight equivalent to the pilot, then insert one of them in the prone position ulna. As the kite, he had lateral control by warping the wings, but also a tailplane ahead of the wings, thus lacking vertical surfaces.
The second glider (Flyer II) tested in 1901, served to determine the optimal curvature of the airfoil.
Although estimates and experiences Lilienthal had served as experience found that were not always reliable, so Orville made a small wind tunnel to test wing profiles. After testing with 200 wings obtained more reliable results. The third glider (Flyer III) conducted in 1902 overcame reach 180m in one minute.
The next goal that the brothers were raised was inserted to a propeller plane, so they built their own engine: four cylinders in line 12cv that tested in 1903. It also managed to develop a sufficiently effective propeller had acceptable performance. Both brothers took to toss who would be lucky to fly first, and Wilbur won the bet. The device got off the ground but reared and entered into loss. On December 17, 1903, Orville Wright now in the presence of five witnesses came to make an undulating flight of about 36 meters in 12 seconds, taking off in about 12 meters. Just held the first sustained and controlled flight of an airplane in history. They perfected his invention and managed to make a closed circuit flight. Year got 38km walk.
Humans in recent years has made impressive achievements in the field of commercial aviation, or Da Vinci and the Wright brothers had imagined seen flying at 10,000 meters in pulled monsters that carry more than 800 passengers or on a space shuttle coming into space, where it is starting a flight to the stars where no man has gone before.
Today flying is routine and normal man finally came to reaching that age-old dream, “Fly"
by Maximo Zadi Desme Hurtado